Tuesday, 20 June 2017

Jay Smith's Student Lizzie Schofield Believes Jesus Mistreats Women in Deut 21:10-14


Lizzie Schofield of Pfander Ministries as a Trinitarian believes Jesus allowed Israelites to mistreat captive women by marrying them after killing their fathers, husbands and brothers in battle. Of course she was trying to launch a shallow Jay Smith-esque polemic against Prophet Muhammad's marriage to Safiya (which is discussed here) but nevertheless, if she'c consistent, she will as a Trinitarian believe Jesus allowed something which she believes to be ill-treatment of women: 

Deuteronomy 21 (ESV)
10 “When you go out to war against your enemies, and the Lord your God gives them into your hand and you take them captive,11 and you see among the captives a beautiful woman, and you desire to take her to be your wife, 12 and you bring her home to your house, she shall shave her head and pare her nails. 13 And she shall take off the clothes in which she was captured and shall remain in your house and lament her father and her mother a full month. After that you may go in to her and be her husband, and she shall be your wife.


This video is also uploaded here and here

According to the Trinitarian worldview, Jesus: also

~Allowed the severe beating of female slaves as long as they got up after a couple of days [Exodus 21:20]
~Ordered the killing of children, infants and WOMEN [1 Samuel 15:3]

My advice to Lizzie, look why not just accept the Islamic view of Jesus? Do you really want to believe Jesus ordered the killing of women and children and allowed the severe beating of female slaves as long as they got up within a day or two?

Jay Smith's Pfander Films Asked to Condemn Death Threat to Muslim Apologist

I hope Lizzie Schofield, Sharon Hoy, Sarah Foster, Hatun Tash and Beth Grove will reflect on why Jay Smith's Pfander Ministries and Pfander Films has accrued such caustic and extremist anti-Muslim followers over the years. I know Jay's group has been barred from speaking at certain venues and universities in the past due to being seen as Islamophobic.

Disrespectful Christian Lady Shouting At Adnan Rashid Over Manchester Terrorist Attack

Why it's Important for Muslims to Continually Condemn Terrorism

Pfander's Beth Grove Asked to Apolgise to Hashim For Anti-Muslim Abuse: Speakers Corner



Justin Brierley, do you Believe Jay Smith's "Hyperbole" Excuse?

Are Jay Smith and Beth Grove of Pfander Centre Radicalising People to Hate Muslims?

Refuting the Claim Petra was the Qibla Before Mecca

Christian Polemicist Jay Smith and The Christian Apologetics Alliance Debunked Again

Blog: Jonathan McLatchie, yes it is Islamophobic to say what you said...

Brief Chat on Andy Bannister's Approach to Evangelism Re Jonathan McLatichie's Facebook

Solas CPC Rebuked by Muslim


Friday, 16 June 2017

Is the Facebook Video 'When a Child is Considered a Temptress' a Fake?

Abu Ayoub The person who posted the video and wrote the title is against Islam. So he made the title misleading on purpose. I'm sure if we find where the original video was posted it would say something like, "Mistakes Women make in wearing Hijab." I do admit though using a little girl as a Model was unwise. He should have used mannequins. But it appears he comes from a poor area so he might not have had access to it. And really every other option he had would've been haram. Be it an older woman or a man (LOL) modeling the tight cloths.

[The video was posted on a forum asking whether it was fake or authentic. The above response is from a gentleman based in the Middle East. Folks be wary of propaganda and misleading videos by Islamophobes]

Explaining the ‘I have been commanded to fight…’ hadith by Dr Jonathan AC Brown



Sahriah Courts: Age and Physical Maturity for Sex

Women Crooked Rib Hadith Explained Dr Jonathan Brown

Hadith More Women in Hell Discussed by Dr Jonathon Brown

Jonathan AC Brown on Honor Killings

Jonathan Brown: The Hadith of the Sun Prostrating

Sharia Law against terrorism

Christians having dreams and converting to Islam


Learn about Islam

Email: yahyasnow@yahoo.co.uk
 


Thursday, 15 June 2017

Muslims and Jews Explain Shomer Negiah: Why Muslim Men Don't Shake Hands With Women (Non Mahram)


This issue may be brought up in the media or by non-Muslim individuals in the West who consider it to be odd. It's the issue of Muslims not shaking hand with strangers of the opposite sex. Our Jewish friends follow the same practice. They call it Shomer Negiah and they say it goes back to the Bible.

In this video, the Muslims (Nouman Ali Khan and Hamza Yusuf), the Jewish lady (Andrea Grinberg) and a Christian preacher (Paul Washer, who laments at our Western society's departure of valuing touch) really help us to value the teaching of not shaking hands or hugging with members of the opposite sex who you have no familial bond with. It's heart warming as well as sad. Sad because this value for touch and guarding against sensual interactions with strangers of the opposite sex has been lost in the West. Watch the video, you'll appreciate and/or understand the Islamic and Jewish teachings on this more.

This vide is also uploaded here and here

Jewish prohibition:

The rule is that people of the opposite gender do not even touch each other, let alone shake hands, unless they are husband and wife, siblings, or children with parents and grandparents.

What is the rationale for the Jewish prohibition on men and women touching, let alone shaking hands?

The prohibition of touching (in Hebrew negiah) goes back to the Book of
Leviticus (18:6 and 18:19) and was developed further in the Talmud. A person who observes this prohibition is often called a shomer negiаh. It applied not only to close contact such as hugging and kissing, but also to shaking hands or patting on the back. The practice is generally followed by traditionally observant Jews, both men and women, including Hassidic Jews, and those who are referred to as Haredim. It is also observed within the Modern Orthodox community depending on how traditional the person is. [Chabad.org]

Muslim scholar teaches the prohibition:

It is not permissible for a man who believes in Allaah and His Messenger to put his hand in the hand of a women who is not permissible for him or who is not one of his mahrams. Whoever does that has wronged himself (i.e., sinned).

It was narrated that Ma’qil ibn Yassaar said: the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “For one of you to be stabbed in the head with an iron needle is better for him than that he should touch a woman who is not permissible for him.”  [IsalmQA]

Jewish explanation:

To remove any myths, it can be said emphatically that it has nothing to do with impurity, or with the social or religious status of people who encounter other people.

The reason is a rather complex, even Freudian rationale. It is felt that touching a person of the opposite gender is essentially a sexual act, or at least the precursor of a sexual act. While it is true that most handshakes between men and women do not lead to sexual relations and are not even contemplated, sexual relations always begin with touching. It is also true that a handshake does communicate feelings albeit on a superficial level.
It has been recognized however, that there are many instances in which men and women can and perhaps even should, touch each other. This would apply to saving a person who is facing a life-threatening danger. Members of the health professions may obviously touch members of the opposite gender in the practice of their discipline, as may hairdressers or physical therapists as a necessary component in the practice of theirs.

Traditional Judaism, unlike some other faiths, regards touching as a highly sensual act. It takes the view that it is not only an important part of marital relations, but one that is only permitted in those relations. To shake hands as a casual courtesy and nothing more is the first step leading to the desensitization of sensuality between husband and wife.
Rabbi Baruch Emmanuel Erdstein of Safed, who holds a degree in anthropology from the University of Michigan, states that "the casual touching of members of the opposite gender can only dull our sensitivity to the sexual power of touch."


А Further Thought

Quite apart from the sexual analysis of some commentators, some commentators point out that an individual's body is personal, and at times to even touch is an intrusion into one's personal dignity. According to this approach, a man should not touch a woman, nor a woman touch a man, out of respect for the space of each other as individuals—especially individuals of the opposite gender who should reserve a certain level of privacy with respect to each other.
[Chabad.org]

The Book Without Doubt - The Quran

Did Peter Believe in the Trinity?

Dawah to Swedish (?) Atheist/Agnostic Wanting to Deport Muslims

Ex Christian: Christian Claims of Miracles Were Fake and Tricks

Refuting Joe Rogan's Comments About Islam







Facebook

Muslim Community Respond to Grenfell Tower Block Fire in London



Saudi Heroes Save Lives

Muslim Helps Pastor Detained by North Korea

Grand Mosque of Paris: Role in Saving Jews

British Muslims in Preston Helping to Save Lives

Paris Muslim Hero: Lassana Bathily

Islam in Action: Muslim Gives Fruit and Water to Homeless

Muslim gives his jacket to homeless guy - Good News Muslim Story

Muslim Group iERA Helping Children's Hospital

Wednesday, 14 June 2017

The Book Without Doubt - The Quran

Why is the Qur'an the only religious book in history to have been flawlessly preserved to the present day? Whether it's preservation of its content, the recitation style or the meanings of its words, God has made sure that the Qur'an is the book about which there is no doubt.

Muslims Have Least Sex Outside of Marriage (Least Fornication and Adultery By Muslims)

Tuesday, 13 June 2017

Usama Dakdok: Muslims Must Kill You and Your Wife, Muslims are Demons

This is lunacy. Islamophobe Usama Dakdok is saying all sorts of wild things about Muslims. Brannon Howse should stop supporting this man. Usama Dakdok should have some shame.


Video also uploaded here

Is Brannon Howse Sponsoring a Liar in Usama Dakdok?

Refuting Joe Rogan's Comments About Islam

Al Fadi, a Confused "Ex Muslim" - Confused by Evangelical Slogans About Jesus and Love

David Wood's Hypocrisy on Jesus' Violence According to the Bible...

James White Warns Churches Against Using Sam Shamoun

Ex Christian: Christian Claims of Miracles Were Fake and Tricks

Christianity and Polygamy

Synoptic Gospels and the Idea of a Pre-Existant Jesus?



Tovia Singer: Does the New Testament Teach Jesus is God?

Why Islam



Is Brannon Howse Sponsoring a Liar in Usama Dakdok?

Brannon Howse's friend Usama Dakdok has been claiming to have studied Islamic Law whilst his fellow Egyptian Christian buddy (Christian Primce) claimed to be a qualified sharian law judge, Odd claim. Would some Christian evangelical be interested in trying to find out if Usama Dakdok is actually telling the truth. There's concern he may have lied to a church in the past too. Here's the video:


This video has also been uploaded here

Usama Dakdok: Muslims Must Kill You and Your Wife, Muslims are Demons

Pastor Usama Dakdok Is A Proven Liar

FrontPageMag: 'Scholar' of Islam Exposed - Usama Dakdok

Usama Dakdok's Friend Makes a Strange Story Up

More Deception from Usama Dakdok of The Straight Way Ministry

Foolish Christian Argument 'that Quran Teaches Earth is Flat' Back-fires

More Falsehood: Prophet Muhammad Killed 4 million Christians in Egypt (Another Usama Dakdok Falsehood)

Murder Rates in Muslim Countries Compared to Non Muslim Countries.

Is Limited Atonement Doctrine Taught Clearer than the Trinity Doctrine in the New Testament?

Synoptic Gospels and the Idea of a Pre-Existant Jesus?



Tovia Singer: Does the New Testament Teach Jesus is God?

Why Islam



Refuting Joe Rogan's Comments About Islam

A response to the Joe Rogan Experience about 7 Myths that our friend Joe Rogan and a few of his guests who have unfortunately been misleading the people with regarding to Muslims and Islam
along with a nice message for Joe Rogan God willing he accepts. The Deen Show respond to Joe Rogan:


This video is also uploaded here.

Flat Earth Polemic - Yasir Qadhi

Muslim Imam Response to Paris Terrorist Attacks

Similarities Between Catholic Terrorist Group IRA and Muslim Terrorist Group ISIS

Explanation: Zaynab Bint Jahsh's Marriage to Prophet Muhammad p Dr Yasir Qadhi

Dhul Qarnayn and the Exegetes' Speculation of Alexander The Great

Murder Rates in Muslim Countries Compared to Non Muslim Countries.

The Hitler Propaganda on Muslims

Sharia Law against terrorism

Christians having dreams and converting to Islam


Learn about Islam

Email: yahyasnow@yahoo.co.uk
 

Monday, 12 June 2017

Al Fadi, a Confused "Ex Muslim" - Confused by Evangelical Slogans About Jesus and Love

Al Fadi is somebody who claims to be a Saudi Arabian ex Muslim. He believes Jesus loves Muslims. He also believes Jesus will kill Muslims. Notice the contradiction?

In response to a video featuring what Christians believe Jesus will do to Muslims upon his second coming, Al Fadi wrote this:








Here's a dialogue that ensued. Yes, Al Fadi does seem to be a confused "ex Muslim" or just ignorant about the Bible and the Trinitarian beliefs about commands such as 1 Samuel 15:3.



























And here's the video in full.


If the video does not play, please see here

Murder Rates in Muslim Countries Compared to Non Muslim Countries.

Is Limited Atonement Doctrine Taught Clearer than the Trinity Doctrine in the New Testament?

Synoptic Gospels and the Idea of a Pre-Existant Jesus?



Tovia Singer: Does the New Testament Teach Jesus is God?

Why Islam



David Wood's Hypocrisy on Jesus' Violence According to the Bible...


The inconsistency of David Wood of Acts 17 Apologetics and Jay Smith of Pfander Ministries is staggering. He will tell Muslims they need to become Christians because Muhammad p was violent. Whilst at the same time he believes Jesus will come back and terrorize Muslims according to the Bible. This is not to mention the fact he believes Jesus ordered the killing of children and babies in 1 Samuel 15:3.

Here's a Christian missionary laying out her Biblical beliefs concerning what Jesus will do to Muslims upon his second coming. David Wood should be ashamed over his hypocrisy.

This video is also here and here








James R. White Proven Wrong by his Buddy Shamoun

ABN, Sam Shamoun and David Wood Plus 'Stupid' Christians

Refutations of David Wood (Acts 17 Apologetics, Answering Muslims)

Refutations of Sam Shamoun (Answering Islam)

Refutations of Nabeel Qureshi (Creed 2:6 Ministries, RZIM)

Did Prophet Muhammad Have Epilepsy? No. Dr Yasir Qadhi

Sharia Law against terrorism

Christians having dreams and converting to Islam


Learn about Islam

Email: yahyasnow@yahoo.co.uk


Thursday, 8 June 2017

Islam, Mary J. Blige DeRay Davis and "Britain's Luckiest Man" - Polygamy


In the eighth century Charlemagne, holding power over both church and state, in his own person practiced polygamy. St. Augustine seems to have observed in it no intrinsic immorality or sinfulness, and declared that polygamy was not a crime where it was the legal institution of a country. He wrote in The Good of Marriage (chapter 15, paragraph 17), that polygamy …was lawful among the ancient fathers……..". He declined to judge the patriarchs, but did not deduce from their practice the on going acceptability of polygamy.

During the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther said, “I confess for my part that if a man wishes to marry two or more wives, I cannot forbid him for it does not contradict the Scripture.” African churches have long recognized polygamy. Early in its history, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints practiced polygamy in the United States. Splinter groups left the Church to continue the practice after the Church banned it. Polygamy among these groups persists today in Utah, neighbouring states, and the spin-off colonies, as well as among isolated individuals with no organized church affiliation.

No church council in the earliest Christian centuries opposed polygamy. St. Augustine clearl)'[sic] declared that he did not condemn it. Luther tolerated it and approved of the bigamous status of Philip of Hesse. In 1531 the Anabaptists preached polygamy and the Mormons of today believe in it (see Abd al Ati, The Family Structure in Islam, American Trust Publications, 1977, p 114 : Until this very day, the church in some African countries conducts the marriage of men to more than one wife. In Europe, the attempt to legally enforce monogamy and outlaw polygamy took place as late as the late sixth and early seventh centuries.

Excerpted with alterations from: Is it Islam alone that allows polygamy? By May Saleh and Magdy Abd AL-SHafy. See here for the entire article:

http://www.quran-m.com/firas/en1/index.php/fakes-about-islam/352-is-it-islam-alone-that-allows-polygamy.html


Did the Old Testament ALLOW Polygamy?

Under the Old Testament Law Polygamy was never banned. It was simply regulated

If he marries another woman, he must not deprive the first one of her food, clothing and marital rights. [Exodus 21:10]

15 If a man has two wives, and he loves one but not the other, and both bear him sons but the firstborn is the son of the wife he does not love, 16 when he wills his property to his sons, he must not give the rights of the firstborn to the son of the wife he loves in preference to his actual firstborn, the son of the wife he does not love. 17 He must acknowledge the son of his unloved wife as the firstborn by giving him a double share of all he has. That son is the first sign of his father’s strength. The right of the firstborn belongs to him. [Deuteronomy 21:15-17]

So this clearly shows the Old Testament did not prohibit the practice of Polygamy, it simply regulated it by giving rules of equal treatment.

Thus further showing the one-man one-woman doctrine is something new while Polygamy is certainly present in the Bible.

According to the Bible, God gave David wives

Mark Henkel says Moses had two wives., Abraham had three wives and that the twelve tribes of Israel were born of Israel's four wives.

Mark Henkel says David had numerous wives and according to the Bible, God gave David those wives and if he wanted more God would have given more:

8 I gave your master’s house to you, and your master’s wives into your arms. I gave you all Israel and Judah. And if all this had been too little, I would have given you even more. [2 Samuel 12:8]

Matthew 25, as mentioned by Mark Henker, contains a parable of a polygamous bridegroom.

Mark Henkel: Clearly the Bible never taught the anti-polygamy doctrine.

Adultery and One Flesh?

The prohibition on adultery is not given in English, it was given in Hebrew. Mark Henkel teaches the Hebrew word for 'adultery' means WOMAN who breaks wed-lock. Thus through the Hebrew we see that polygamy of a man marrying more than one wife is not adultery.

And we must also keep in mind Mark Henkel's important reminder of Christian belief, Moses is believed to have written down the Law prohibiting adultery yet he had more than one wife thus showing to Christians and Jews that polygamy of a man marrying more than one wife is NOT adultery.

As for the two will be one flesh. Mark Henkel states this does not mean you cannot be one flesh with more than one woman as Moses was.

Mark Henkel points out that the Bible also teaches one can become 'one flesh' with a prostitute. Mark Henkel contends this means that the person can be 'one flesh' with his wife and 'one flesh' with a prostitute.

16 Do you not know that he who unites himself with a prostitute is one with her in body? For it is said, “The two will become one flesh.”[b] 17 But whoever is united with the Lord is one with him in spirit. [1 Corinthians 6]

Mark Henkel believes the understanding of adultery and the one-flesh passage are not in contradiction with Polygamy.

Ruling for Kings in Deuteronomy 17?

The king, moreover, must not acquire great numbers of horses for himself or make the people return to Egypt to get more of them, for the Lord has told you, “You are not to go back that way again.” 17 He must not take many wives, or his heart will be led astray. He must not accumulate large amounts of silver and gold. [Deuteronomy 17:16-17]

Some Christians may use Deuteronomy 17:16-17 to argue against polygamy but is this an intellectually honest  argument?

Firstly, the passage is speaking about kings (not everyday people) and secondly the instructions are do not take a great number of horses and many wives. Of course, a king will have more than one horse so it does not seem to be a teaching of do not take more than one. Perhaps it's a teaching of do not be extravagant and have a great number of horses and wives. So it seems like the kings can have more than one wife and more than one horse.

The Husband of One Wife and 1 Timothy

1 Timothy 3:2, 1 Timothy 3:12 and Titus 1:6 are not general prohibitions of polygamy. Mark Henkel says these are instructions only for Bishops, Elders and Deacons. Mark Henkel offers a further interpretation referring to the Greek, he believes this is a prohibition against divorce.

Something that Mark Henkel did not mention that I will touch on. 1 Timothy 4:12 is said to be teaching pastors to be an example to the believers. The anti-polygamy Christians will use this verse. However, is this really a teaching of direct imitation? If it was, then wouldn't all Christian believers have to become pastors? So to hang one's hat on this verse does not seem to be the best of logics. On top of this, the acceptance of 1 Timothy being from Paul is in question - New testament scholars dispute whether Paul wrote this. Professor Bart Ehrman believes it to be a forgery. Here's a little piece online that you may be interested in reading:

1 Timothy is one of the three epistles known collectively as the pastorals (1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus). They were not included in Marcion's canon of ten epistles assembled c. 140 CE. Against Wallace, there is no certain quotation of these epistles before Irenaeus c. 170 CE.

Norman Perrin summarises four reasons that have lead critical scholarship to regard the pastorals as inauthentic. Read more


Christianity and Polygamy

Synoptic Gospels and the Idea of a Pre-Existant Jesus?



Tovia Singer: Does the New Testament Teach Jesus is God?

Why Islam



Ex Christian: Christian Claims of Miracles Were Fake and Tricks

This is an ex-Christian who lost faith in the charismatic Christian movement. He knew Christians cannot do miracles and felt they were trying to trick him by claims of miracles. Muslims need to be watchful for Christian missionaries in Africa and Asia trying the same tricks in an attempt to convert Muslims to Christianity.


Muslims may also want to share this video of a Christian claiming to have healed a Muslim's eyesight. It now turns out the Christian has left Christianity.

This video is also uploaded here and here


Dawah to Swedish (?) Atheist/Agnostic Wanting to Deport Muslims

I had a quick YouTube exchange which started off with a gentleman, who I assume to be Swedish, talking aggressively about Muslims.



Here's the exchange. It was rushed but it does go to show that some aggressive comments towards Muslims are cries from the commenter for a Muslim to interact with them. We can use these as opportunities for Dawah (preaching Islam) and to build community cohesion and relationships between Muslims and Non-Muslims. What you should not do is get into an angry slanging match with them - it does not help anybody.

VM: Deport all the muslims, demolish all the mosques and burn all the quorans - these racist pedophiles will pay for that chaos...

Me: Are you a Christian?

VM: Yahya Snow No - I am an atheist - I believe in science and progress - so my opinion is not biased - I base my opinion on my own experience - and btw religion is just a concept so everyone can freely criticise it - and if someone calls it racism - religion isn't a skin colour - and I am not only criticising Islam but I see problems in Christianity and Judaism as well - all religions keep us locked in the Medieval Ages and cause conflicts...

Me: As Muslims we believe in science and progress too. There are fundamental problems with Atheism. Atheism leads to an ideology which means there are no objective moral standards. And if the Atheist is a materialistic emotions like love as well as other humans are simply a collection of chemical reactions and molecules. This worldview cannot value life in the same way a religious worldview can. Look into the philosophical arguments for God such as the cosmological argument, teleological argument and the argument from morality. Right now my Viktor, you and I cannot converse about Islam as Islam makes more sense when one actually believes in God and thus can be explained easier. As for terrorism, the Sharia (Islamic law) forbids terrorism so acts like suicide bombing and this recent one targeting innocent people at London Bridge are seen as sinful and unjust acts. My email: yahyasnow@yahoo.co.uk. Have a good night/day. Take care, God bless. Love.

VM: Yahya Snow I don't actually completely reject the fact that the God or higher power (existence) exist - there are many things that we cannot explain yet and I have my own morality, but I think that people are too dependent on religion and use it as a reson for everything and mixing it to everything (like politics) - like extremists who use Allah as the reason why they are killing and beheading...(and I heard that a girl was stoned for burning Quoran) - it also divides people and trigger conflicts - and leads to discrimination and sometimes violence - and 👈THAT's not going to make us progress and become a 'modern' society. It's good that there is a diversity in religions and everyone has his/her own believes but every religion has its disadvantages and advantages and when people take it too far like the people in the video - it's a bit sad and frustrating...and after the refugee crisis it has strengthen...you should also understand me - Muslim gangs are burning cars (sometimes a couple nights in a row) and I see police every day by my house, in a neighbourhood that was very peaceful and calm before...and there was a woman who was raped by a Muslim but he was sent home because he used Islam and Allah as a reason and everyone here consider criticising Islam as racism and the government and police are not defending 'non-muslims' - maybe now you understand why I am so angry...

Me: Viktor, race and even atheism divides people. That's not a reason to reject a religion - by it's very nature that religion is meant to divide as it is saying there's one truth. Truth is absolutist not relativist. There's only one theology that is correct. You're talking about Muslims doing bad stuff in your area. OK, yes, there are Muslims that do bad...that's not because of the religion. The religion does not tell them to burn cares, rape etc.. Look, I understand why you're angry, yes parts of Europe have been affected violently by people self-designating as "Muslims". But if you look into all the crimes in your country I guarantee you will find crimes committed by people of various faiths - the majority will be by secularists or Christians in your country (I assume you're in Sweden). Like I say, look into the arguments for God and then give Islam a chance brother. Have you read the Quran, if you have not try reading it. You can get Swedish translations and English translations (whichever is best for you). Anyways, I have to go, all the best. Take care. May Allah bless you further. Love.






Numerical miracle in Quran

British Muslims Protested to Defend Jesus p

Sharia Law against terrorism

Christians having dreams and converting to Islam


Conversions to Islam

Learn about Islam

Email: yahyasnow@yahoo.co.uk